60 years of complex relations between Algeria and the former occupier France


Paris (AFP)- In the 60 years since Algeria gained independence from France, it has gone through multiple crises with its former occupier, often fueled by domestic politics.

Still, the two sides had a surprisingly good relationship for the first four decades, and it wasn’t until the 1990s that things started to fall apart, experts say.

“Generally, despite appearances and criticism, there has been a stable, very balanced relationship,” said Luis Martinez, North African researcher at Sciences Po Paris.

And this despite the devastation caused by the eight-year war of independence which finally led to the signing of the Evian Accords on March 18, 1962, ending the conflict.

French historians say half a million civilians and combatants died – including 400,000 Algerians – while Algerian authorities insist that 1.5 million were killed.

Under French General Charles de Gaulle, whose administration signed the accords, and his successor Georges Pompidou, Paris enjoyed good relations with Algiers.

The same goes for the administration of François Mitterrand, even though he was Minister of the Interior at the start of the armed struggle for Algerian independence in 1954 and remained opposed to independence. from the country.

“Mitterrand was surrounded by people from the Socialist Party, who were all pro-FLN,” said historian Pierre Vermeren, referring to the National Liberation Front, which led the revolt and dominated Algerian politics ever since.

“(Mitterrand) was able to go to the back” and let the others take care of Algeria, said Vermeren, a professor at the University of the Sorbonne.

France was allowed to continue nuclear testing in the Algerian Sahara until 1967, and de Gaulle managed to negotiate a secret agreement with the new Algerian state to allow chemical weapons testing until 1978.

But in 1992, Paris angered by blaming Algiers for suspending elections, in which Islamist parties had won the first round.

Algeria withdrew its ambassador in response.

The cancellation of elections sparked another decade of devastating conflict in the North African country, until Abdelaziz Bouteflika, who took over as president in 1999, proposed an amnesty that paved the way for peace.

Algeria AFP

Although close to France, Bouteflika used anti-French rhetoric, mostly for domestic consumption, Vermeren said.

“To regain control of the ideological and political sphere after the civil war, (Algerian leaders) ‘forgot’ that France had helped them fight the Islamists,” he said.

“They have returned to their traditional enemy.”

“Good relations in secret”

Under Bouteflika, Algerian leaders have used ever louder language, accusing France of “genocide” during its more than 130 years of occupation of Algeria.

Then, in 2019, a massive protest movement toppled the autocratic leader after two decades in power – but the new regime kept the anti-French rhetoric going.

The former Hotel du Parc in Evian in central France, where the Evian Accords were concluded on March 18, 1962, paving the way for Algerian independence
The former Hotel du Parc in Evian in central France, where the Evian Accords were concluded on March 18, 1962, paving the way for Algerian independence JEAN-PHILIPPE KSIAZEK AFP

Observers, however, say the cooperation behind closed doors has been surprisingly close.

In 2013, Algeria allowed French forces to use its airspace to reach Mali, where they were fighting jihadists.

“Franco-Algerian relations are good when they are secret. They are more hostile when they are public,” said Naoufel Brahimi El Mili, who has written a book on 60 years of “secret histories” between the two countries. .

When Emmanuel Macron became president, he had good relations with Algeria.

Visiting Algiers during his campaign in February 2017, he called colonization a “crime against humanity”.

After his election, he made gestures aimed at healing the wounds of the past on both sides of the Mediterranean.

But he refused to apologize for colonialism, a highly sensitive topic in France, which for decades considered Algeria part of French territory and where far-right discourse intensified.

Comments reported last October dampened hopes for reconciliation.

The late Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika, seen in this file photo taken June 15, 2015, used anti-France rhetoric during his two decades in power
The late Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika, seen in this file photo taken June 15, 2015, used anti-France rhetoric during his two decades in power Alain JOCARD POOL/AFP/File

Macron accused the Algerian “politico-military system” of rewriting history and fomenting “hate towards France”.

In remarks to descendants of independence fighters, reported by Le Monde, he also questioned whether Algeria had existed as a nation before the French invasion in the 1800s.

Once again, Algeria has withdrawn its ambassador.

“Algeria votes Macron”

Today, a few weeks before the French presidential election in April, relations seem to be picking up again.

Millions of French citizens of Algerian origin and descendants of Europeans who left after independence are among the voters.

French President of the Council General Charles de Gaulle pictured here inspecting the French army in Algeria in 1958 in Kabylia
French President of the Council General Charles de Gaulle pictured here inspecting the French army in Algeria in 1958 in Kabylia -AFP

“Algeria will vote for Macron,” said author El Mili. “Algerians are convinced that a Macron II will be bolder.”

Xavier Driencourt, former French ambassador to Algeria, shares this point of view.

“They don’t want (candidate) Valérie Pécresse who has quite a right-handed tone, and certainly not (Eric) Zemmour or Marine Le Pen,” he said, referring to the conservative Pécresse and two presidential candidates. far-right presidential candidate.

But a lot remains to be done. In recent years, Algeria has diversified its international relations, with China becoming its main trading partner.

Sciences Po’s Martinez said Macron’s comments had done a lot of damage.

“They’ll go back to the drawing board and try to see what they can agree on,” he said.

Former envoy Driencourt said ‘it takes two parties to have a relationship’.

Would Algeria be interested after the election?

“I’m not very optimistic,” he said.

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